background image
Access management further readings
Glenn, Ariel, Millman, David (1998): Access Management of Web-based Services. In: D-Lib
Magazine, September 1998.
Arms,William Y. (1998): Implementing Policies for Access Management. In: D-Lib
Magazine, February 1998. <>
Lynch, Clifford (1998): A White Paper on Authentication and Access Management Issues in
Cross-organisational Use of Networked Information Resources.
M-Tech Mercury Information Technology, Inc. (2000): Password Management Best
Practice. <http://www.psynch/documents/bestpractice/bp2.tex>
Electronic Copyright Management Systems (ECMS)
Electronic copyright management systems are basically databases that contain infor-
mation about content (discrete works, manifestations of works, products, etc.), about the
author/creator and current rights holder.This information is needed to support the process
of authorising the use of those works to others and to track a repository of works (blanket
licences or umbrella licenses that cover entire repertories) as well as to track each right
holder's rights and works (transaction licenses which cover only a specific use).
At the most basic level, an electronic copyright management system consists of 2
modules, the information databases, for the identification of content, plus a licensing or rights
transaction tool. However, the system may be supplemented with additional systems, such as
payment systems to enable the immediate transaction, or access management systems.
Fully automated rights management
Most electronic copyright management systems in use today, are not yet fully automated.
In most cases, the information databases are fully functional, yet the licensing procedures are
in fact by and large done manually. Although email has replaced letters and faxes, the license
requests are still traded by hand. As Daniel Gervais describes it:"A fully automated licensing
function that includes searchable online catalogues of prices, available content, and autho-
rised uses, along with a `lights-out' licensing function (available 24 hours a day seven days a
week) is still quite rare, but is coming." (Gervais, 1998)
In fully automated systems for managing transactional licenses, users would search
available content and rights online, submit a license request electronically, and receive a
response from the electronic copyright management system without any human
intervention. Ideally, the user would also be able to immediately receive the content, and
pay for the license.What's missing to realise such a system today, are global identification
standards to share works, rights and information relating thereto with another electronic
copyright management system.
To be able to track resources through the digital networks, each work, manifestation as
well as the rights holder must be identified uniquely in order to secure authorisations from
the right person, assign permissions and then send payments to the rights holder. At present
there are several competing standards for various types of materials under consideration and
in use, including the International Standard Work Code International Standard Recording
Code, ISBN/ISSN, Barcodes, Publisher Item Identifier, Book Item and Component
Identifier, and Digital Object Identifier for electronic material (the issue of uniquely
identifying digital objects has already been discussed at a different place in this chapter).
Yet, this situation makes full automation of copyright management very difficult.